Boje

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Reformator:
Hue
Hue is what most people think of when we say "color."

Hue is the name of a distinct color of the spectrum—red, green, yellow, orange, blue, and so on. It is the particular wavelength frequency.

      This strip shows a range of hues. It is easy to point to "red" or "blue" or "yellow."

Saturation
Saturation is the "purity" of the color.

Saturation refers to the amount of white light (or gray paint) mixed with the hue. Pastels are less saturated colors. Both of these samples below have a hue we would call "blue" but their saturation is different.

Fully saturated colors are very rich and bright.    100% blue is a very saturated color
Less saturated colors look muddier, or less pure.    steelblue has gray undertones


      

High Saturated Colors
As saturation decreases, all colors become a value of gray. You can experience reduced saturation by setting your monitor to gray-scale. Since some pure hues are darker that others, the resulting desaturated grays will also be darker -- for example, compare the blue with the yellow in this chart.
Low Saturation Colors

Value (Intensity, Lightness, Brightness)
The value (sometimes called lightness or intensity or brightness) of a color is the amount of light or white it contains.

Value refers to the intensity of light present. When light is at its fullest intensity, colors will become bright, at its least intensity, colors become dim. Unlike saturation, there isn't necessarily "less" of the color -- it is just not as intense. You might think of value as being a bit like the dimmer switch on your dining room light or the brightness knob on your computer's monitor. Turn up the switch, and the value grows brighter.

 
     A higher value creates a whiter, brighter color.

Reformator:
Color Models
A color model is simply an agreed-upon way of describing color.

Because color is so subjective and so important in our perception of the world, there have been, over time, many different models created to explain, define, and specify color. Sometimes the promotion of various models has taken on the flavor of an operating system war! ("My color model is better than yours!")

In day to day practice, you'll most likely use two models: HSV and RGB. You'll also hear a lot about CMYK.

HSV stands for Hue, Saturation, and Value, and it uses these three concepts to describe a color. You'll encounter it most often in your illustration and image editing programs. RGB stands for Red, Green, and Blue, and uses these three concepts to define a color. You'll use this in specifying colors within CSS or HTML code. Your image editing programs might also provide tools for picking color this way. Most programs provide you ways to translate the values of one model into the values of another. For exmaple, you can usually find the hex value of a color you've selected from an HSV color wheel -- the hex value is an RBG representation of that color.

CMYK is the color model used for printing. If you are using your illustration and image editing programs to prepare material for printing, you may want to work within the CMYK space from the very beginning. Pantone, another term you might hear, is an extensive and widely-used set of color inks and many programs let you pick specific Pantone colors as well. As with CMYK, this is important only if you are taking your work to a printing press or trying to match a printed color on a Web site.

HSV Model
Taken together, hue, saturation, and value combine to form the HSV color model.

HSV is the color selection model used most often in illustration and image programs, like Fireworks and Freehand. Color selection based on these criteria is often presented as a color wheel, with hues along the outer edge at full saturation, and with saturation decreasing as you move to the center of the circle. Value or intensity is adjusted with a brightness bar. Hue is presented as an angle point, while saturation and value are meaureed as a percentage between 0 and 100:

To create HSV colors on the computer you select a hue and saturation on the color wheel. Hues are around the edge of the wheel, saturation increases with the distance from the center. Value is selected from a dark to light slider.    

 

RGB
RGB stands for red, green, blue—the three colors that make up an image on a monitor.

The RGB color model is an additive model used for displaying images on a computer monitor or other screen device. When the three primary colors, red, green, and blue, are combined they make a white light. When all are absent, there is black. Projected colors often feel much brighter than their subtractive model counterparts.

To create RGB colors on the computer you must specify percentages of each of the primary colors. Color is controlled by moving the sliders:



This purple color is a mix of 56% red, 5% green, 61% blue:

Reformator:
CMYK
CMYK stands for cyan, magenta, yellow, black -- the four colors that make up the standard printing process.

The CMYK color model is a subtractive model used for printing on printing presses and many color computer printers. When the three primary colors, cyan, magenta, and yellow, are combined together they do not produce a rich black, so black ink is added as a fourth color.

To create CMYK colors on the computer you must specify percentages of the primary colors. Color is controlled by moving the sliders.:


For example, this purple color is a mix of 5% cyan, 56% magenta, 0% yellow, and 39% black:


Process printing is the printing of images on paper using overlapping dots of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) inks to create full color, continuous tones. If you look at a printed photo with a loupe, you'll see it is really made of many small dots of these four colors. Many color computer printers, especially those designed to print photographs, use CMYK inks also.

   
Original full color photograph.    


Enlarged representation of CMYK inks printed in a dot structure (halftone) to create the illusion of full color imagery.

Enlarged representation of CMYK inks printed in a dot structure (below). Each color broken out individually: cyan at the top, followed by magenta, yellow, and black.




Reformator:
Boja                                                                            





Slikarski krug boja


Za pojam boje kao materijala pogledaj članak Nalič. Boja je osjetilni doživljaj koji nastaje kada svjetlost karakterističnog spektra pobudi receptore u mrežnici oka. Boju također pripisujemo površinama objekata, materijalima, svjetlosnim izvorima, itd. ovisno o njihovim svojstvima apsorpcije, refleksije ili emisije svjetlosnog spektra. U vidnom spektru, odnosno skupu boja, koje ljudsko oko može raspoznati, dolaze redom crvena, narančasta, žuta, zelena, plava, ljubičasta. Zbog toga je i naziv za područje u spektru elektromagnetskih valova učestalosti (frekvencije) ispod one svjetlosnog vala koji odgovara crvenoj boji infracrveno zračenje, a iznad učestalosti vala za ljubičastu boju ultraljubičasto zračenje. Ljudsko ga oko ne zapaža (tada vidimo drugu boju koja je u pozadini), ali ga zapažaju vidni organi nekih životinja, npr. pčela. Spektar boja se može vidjeti ako snop bijele svjetlosti usmjerimo na prizmu, čime dolazi do njena rasapa. Infracrveni val se može opaziti na drugi način: nađe li mu se na putu u rasutom spektru toplomjer, temperatura biva povišena - ljudski ga organizam doživljava kao toplinu. Tradicionalna podjela boja u umjetnosti je na osnovne i složene. Tri osnovne boje su: crvena, žuta i plava. One se zovu i primarne boje. Tri složene boje dobivaju se miješanjem osnovnih boja: crvena + žuta = narančasta, plava + žuta = zelena i plava + crvena = ljubičasta. Te boje se nazivaju i sekundarne. Tercijarne boje dobivaju se miješanjem primarnih i sekundarnih (npr. plavozelena, žutozelena i dr.). Boje vidljive ljudskom oku
Boja raspon valnih duljina frekvencijski raspon crvena ~ 625 – 740 nm ~ 480 – 405 THz narančasta ~ 590 – 625 nm ~ 510 – 480 THz žuta ~ 565 – 590 nm ~ 530 – 510 THz zelena ~ 500 – 565 nm ~ 600 – 530 THz cijan ~ 485 – 500 nm ~ 620 – 600 THz plava ~ 440 – 485 nm ~ 680 – 620 THz ljubičasta ~ 380 – 440 nm ~ 790 – 680 THz
Druga podjela boja je na tople (crvena, žuta, narančasta) i hladne (plava, ljubičasta, zelena). Tako su podijeljene zato što se u prirodi mogu zamijetiti uz određena toplinska stanja (crveno – vatra, plavo – more). U neutralne boje spadaju smeđa, kavena i sl.. Komplementarne boje su dvije boje od koje jedne nema ni malo u drugoj boji. One se nalaze na suprotnim stranama Ostwaldovog kruga boja. To su: narančasta i plava (zato što narančasta nastaje miješanjem crvene i žute, tj. u sebi nema nimalo plave boje), ljubičasta i žuta, crvena i zelena. Dugine boje obuhvaćaju spektar šest boja (primarne i sekundarne) koje možemo vidjeti propuštanjem zrake svjetlosti kroz trostranu kristalnu prizmu. Znanost koja se bavi proučavanjem boja zove se optika. U drugim djelatnostima sustavi boja se se određuju na temelju praktičnih i tehnoloških razloga. Kod aditivnog miješanja boja koje se koristi u televiziji i računalstvu najveći raspon prikaza boja dobiva se kada su primarne boje crvena, zelena i plava. Kod suptraktivnog miješanja boja koje se koristi u fotografiji i tiskarstvu primarne su boje cijan, magenta i žuta, pri čemu se u tiskarstvu radi postizanja većeg kontrasta dodaje još i pigment crne boje.
Simboličko značenje boja Crvena - ljubav, strast, radost, tamno crvena - vrag, revolucionarna boja svih zastava.
Plava - aristokracija, istina, vjernost, plemenitost.
Zelena - mir (maslinova grana, lovorov vijenac), nada, besmrtnost (evergreen).
Žuta - um, pamet, svjetlo, razum.
Ljubičasta - čarobnjaštvo, pokora, strpljenje, umjetnost.
Narančasta - plodnost, sjaj, bogatstvo.
Ružičasta - slatkoća, sramežljivost, nježnost, djevojaštvo.
Grimizna - čast, kraljevstvo, kardinalska boja, dostojanstvo, bogatstvo, čast, uzvišenost.
Bijela - čistoća, mir.
Crna - tuga, bolest, smrt, nesreća, teror.
Psihološko djelovanje boja Svaka boja ima određeno psihološko djelovanje, tj. izazivaju kod nas razne osjećaje. Evo primjera nekih boja i njihovih djelovanja: Crvena - snažno, razdražujuće djelovanje, popravlja raspoloženje, ubrzava puls, disanje i mišićnu napetost.
Žuta - djeluje poticajno, izaziva radost i veselje, velike je vidljivosti i upotrebljava se u prometu.
Narančasta - djeluje svečano, veselo, izaziva osjećaj zdravlja, životne radosti.
Zelena - odmara, djeluje blago, stvara unutrašnji mir, odmara vid.
Plava - djeluje smirujuće, suprotno od crvene, pasivno, hladno, potiče koncentraciju i umiruje.
Ljubičasta - djeluje mistično, tajanstveno, očaravajuće i prigušuje strasti.
Bijela - umara.
Zanimljivosti Stari hrvatski izrazi za boju, u smislu vidnog osjetilnog doživljaja, su krasa, mast i cvijet (Klaić: Rječnik stranih riječi). Krasu prepoznajemo u izrazu krasno, krasan, a mast je ostao, primjerice u crnomanjast.Izvor: Wikipedija

Reformator:
Evo još nešto o efektu boja:

   1. Red is stimulating and aggressive.
   2. Blue is peaceful and tranquil.
   3. Green is calm and refreshing.
   4. Yellow grabs peoples attention.
   5. Purple is wealthy and luxurious.
   6. Brown is solid and reliable.
   7. Orange is bright and optimistic.

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